This article is about hip hop culture. For the music genre, see Hip hop music.Hip hop is a cultural movement that started in New York in the 1970s that is recognised by four main elements: rapping or MCing, turntablism or DJing, breaking and graffiti. Despite their contrasting methods of execution, they each find unity in their common association to the poverty and violence underlying the historial context that birthed the culture. The term "hip hop" was coined in 1978 by Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
The origin of the culture stems from the block parties of The Ghetto Brothers, when plugged their amps for their instruments and speakers into the lampposts on 163rd Street and Prospect Avenue, and DJ Kool Herc who hosted block parties in the recreation room of 1520 Sedgwick Avenue and would mix samples of existing records with his own shouts to the crowd and dancers. Kool Herc is credited as the "father" of hip hop. Afrika Bambaataa coined the terms "MCing", "DJing", "B-boying", and "graffiti writing", as well as creating the hip hop awareness group Zulu Nation. Since the creation of hip hop culture in the South Bronx, it has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the world.
DJing, MCing, breaking and graffiti are the creative outlets of hip hop culture. Like punk and the blues, these arts allowed people to make a statement, whether it was political or emotional. These practices spread globally during the 1980s as fans could make their own music and express themselves in new and creative ways.
Turntablism is the technique of manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and a DJ mixer. One of the first hip hop DJs was Kool DJ Herc, who created hip hop through the isolation of "breaks", the part of a song where it becomes a drum beat. DJs Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmaster Flowers, Grandmaster Flash, Grand Wizzard Theodore and Grandmaster Caz made further innovations while developing Herc's techniques.
Traditionally, a DJ uses two turntables simultaneously. These are connected to a DJ mixer, an amplifier, speakers and additional electronic music equipment. The DJ will then perform various tricks between the two songs in rotation, with the result being a unique sound created by the two songs. Although there is a considerable overlap between the two roles, a DJ is not necessarily always the producer of a song.
In the early years of hip hop, the DJs were the stars, but that role has been taken over by MCs since 1978. However, a number of DJs have gained stardom nonetheless in recent years, such as Mr. Magic, DJ Jazzy Jeff, DJ Scratch, DJ Premier, Scott La Rock, Pete Rock, DJ Muggs, DJ Shadow, Jam Master Jay, Eric B., DJ Screw, Funkmaster Flex, Tony Touch, DJ Clue, Mix Master Mike and DJ Qbert. The underground movement of turntablism has also emerged to focus on the skills of the DJ.